For the purpose of this assignment, a policy is a rule applied in a specific situation that produces a specific change in some state of human affairs. The rule enacts, actually produces, a priority, the desired state of affairs. This means the policy contains some claims about cause and effect relationships (‘the rule will bring about the new state of affairs’), and about norms or values (‘the new state of affairs is better than the current one or other alternatives’). Policy analysis can focus on any of the following four parts: (a) the rule itself, (b) the ability of implementers to apply the rule in the specific situation, (c) the ability of the rule to produce the desired state of affairs, or (d) the values embodied in the policy. For example, a rule might violate a civil right; it might bring about, in addition to the desired outcome, the deaths of innocent people; and it might pursue values that are not accepted by an overwhelming majority of citizens. It might cost too much for the benefits achieved. It might be the best we can do in all these respects. It might be necessary to do more than one of the four parts, but if (c) is your main focus, for example, make sure you do a complete job on that. There is no magic technique with any of this—humans search for reasons to believe claims, and where possible test these claims. The usual rules about methodology apply.
A longer version of this is here.
A POLICY =
Specific --produces-- Priority
Situation (desired state,)
· The rule is within our power to enact
· The rule will produce or force the outcome
· This is a claim about cause and effect
· The priority is an ethical position, if enacted it is
a collection of values deemed an improvement
over the prior situation.
March 23: Policy paper topics distributed.
April 6: Declare policy paper topic.
April 13: Workshop on policy paper approach.
April 20: Review of policy paper approach.
May 16: Policy papers are due.
Papers will be 4-6 double-spaced pages. In addition to a strict use of the logic of policy papers, the same criteria for your group analysis papers apply.
POLICY PAPER QUESTIONS. Choose one of these topics for your paper.
1. Should the Washington State Department of Ecology make a rule based on daily average fish consumption rate of 175 grams per day, and give wastewater dischargers time to come into compliance while working on reducing toxics in their waste streams?
2. Should the Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration make a rule strengthening regulation of oil and related hazardous materials shipped via rail? (Note the rule was subsequently altered, as noted in the chronology of actions.) Additional descriptions of the issue are here and here. The PHMSA has a page about the issue.